Ali Shir Navai: who is he?

Uyghur Turk Nizamüddin Ali Shir Navai was born in Herat on February 9th, 1441, and passed away in 1501. Ali ir Nevai’s mother is the daughter of a brain, and his father, Gyâsüddîn Kiçkine Bahadr, is one of the period’s statesmen. Ali Ir began his educational career with Hüseyin Baykara, the grandson of Mirza Baykara and the son of Emir Gyâsüddin Mansûr, with whom he had grown up since infancy. Nevâî adopted the title of “Emir,” which means “Bey of the Divan,” when Hüseyin Baykara assumed control of the government in 1472, and later rose to the position of vizier. After some time, Nevai decided she was tired of dealing with government affairs. He joined the Naqshbandi sect in 1476 under the direction of Molla Câmî, a prominent figure of the time who he had a lot of respect and admiration for. Ali ir Nevai claimed that Turkish was a superior language to Persian in many ways during a time when Persian was the official language, Persian literature peaked with Molla Câmî, and the intelligentsia thought writing Persian was a virtue. Nevâî, who has greatly influenced the growth of Central Asian Turkish cultural and artistic life, loves Turkish and thinks that Turkish has more expressive power than other languages. Nevai, who was a master of Turkish, wrote texts in both languages. In his Turkish and Persian poems, he wrote under the aliases “Nevai” and “Fani,” respectively.
The following literary creations were written by him in the “Nevâî language,” or Chagatai Turkish:

His Divans (Hazâ’inü’l-Me’ânî): Ali ir Nevâî named two divans Bedâyi’ü’l-Bidâye and Nevâdirü’n-Nihâye between 1469 and 1486, stating that it was arranged before he arranged four Turkish divans in his Münşe’ât. Hazâ’inü’l-Me’ânî is the name of the divan he established after Nevâdirü’n-Nihâye. The poet wrote poems for Hazâ’inü’l-Me’ânî in his youth, middle age, and old age. It was called Garâ’ibü’s-Sgâr, Nevâdirü’ş-ebâb, Bedâyi’ü’l-Vasat, and Fevâ’idü’l-Kiber when it was only four years old. In addition to these, there is a Persian Divan.

• Ferhâd u îrîn, Leylî vü Mecnûn, Seb’a-i Seyyâre, and Sedd-i skenderî are the names of the masnavis who made the hamse. Hayretü’l-Ebrâr is the name of the hamse.

Mecâlisü’n-Nefâis, a compilation of poets, is written in prose. His book, Nesâyimü’l-Mahabbe min emâyimi’l-Fütüvve, is also a collection of parent biographies.

• His writings on language and literature include Risâle-i Mu’ammâ, Mîzânü’l-Evzân, and Muhakemetü’l-Lugateyn.

• Works on religion include Münâcât, ihil Hadis, Nazmü’l-Cevâhir, Lisanü’t-Tayr, Sîrâcü’l-Müslimîn, and Mahbûl-Kulûb.

His books Târîh-i Enbiyâ vü Hükemâ, Târîh-i Mülûk-‘Acem ve Zübdetü’t- Tevârîh all deal with historical topics. In addition to these, there are biographical works with the names Halat-Pehlevân Muhammad, Halat-Seyyid-i Hassan Erdşîr, and Hamsetü’l-Mütehayyirîn. On the other hand, Vakfiyye and Münşe’at have high-quality documents.

He made the case that Persian is inferior to Turkish in his book Muhakemet’l Lugateyn.


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